TRAIN THE GAP. EUROPEAN LAERNING PATHWAY ON RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP is an ERASMUS+ (KA2 Strategic Partnership for adult education) supported project led by Asociación de Familias y Mujeres del Medio Rural (AFAMMER) of Spain.

TRAIN THE GAP aims to define an European learning pathway on rural women entrepreneurship that improves entrepreneurial competences and skills empowering women of rural areas. In order to obtain this main objective the project sets the following operational objectives:

  • To define a European learning pathway on rural women entrepreneurship according to EFQ.
  • To develop a course for women to promote basic and transversal skills to be entrepreneur.
  • To define a training methodology that improves the learning process.
  • To develop facilitators teaching skills to motivate women’s participation.
  • To involve trainees and trainers in learning process.
  • To provide an environment that promotes the knowledge management, exchange and creation on social entrepreneurship.

TRAIN THE GAP partnership is formed by five different institutions coming from four European countries (Spain, Ireland, Lithuania and Sweden) and each of them representing different actors in the project: women association, training providers, university and innovative social research: AFAMMER (ES), DRAMBLYS (ES), MEAG (IE), FOLKUNIVERSITETET (SE) and VDU (LT).

TRAIN THE GAP project duration is of 24 months, starting in October 2015 and ending in September 2017.


1.- Projet Promoter:




AFFAMER – Founded in 1982, AFAMMER was the first association in Spain oriented to promote the development of the women in rural areas. The main objective is to fight against the gender gap through training activities and the continuous collaboration and cooperation in rural environment.

2.- Ireland




Mullingar Employment Action Group (MEAG) is a community suported organisation established in 1990 to help address unemployment. Since its inception the Action Group has suopported the creation of in excess of over 3000 jobs through its interests, including ‘The Enterprise Centre’, ‘Mullingar Enterprise Technology and Innovative Centre’, ‘The Uniform Boutique’ and ‘Mullingar Recycling resource Centre’ Community Employment Schemes’ and many other related projects.

3.- Lithuania




Vytautas Magnus University (VMU) established in 1922 (re-established in 1989) and ranked as the TOP 700 university in the world. VMU is one of the most liberal and modern academic institutions in Lithuania, boasting an exciting history, nurturing and continuing deep-rooted traditions, playing a leading role in not just Lithuanian, but also the entire Baltic and European intellectual and cultural sphere. The academic community of VMU is united by the idea of artes liberales, i.e. the classical university of liberal arts.

4.- Spain




DRAMBLYS: Social Creativity Lab – a non-profit socio-cultural organization located in Spain. In DRAMBLYS, we combine sociological imagination & inquiry with social creativity and design to approach, explore, and innovate solutions to emerging social problems in order to strengthen local capacity and foster social creativity.

5.- Sweden




Folkuniversitetet is an adult educational association that offers a wide range of adult education all over Sweden. It is an association of five foundations: the university extensions attached to the Universities of Stockholm, Uppsala, Göteborg, Lund and Umeå.

6.- Silent Partner


Chwarae Teg


Chwarae Teg (Fair Play) is an organisation working to build a Wales where women achieve and prosper. It does this by working with women to broaden their horizons and build their confidence and skills, and by working with employers to create modern workplaces that gain success through harnessing everyone’s contribution. Chwarae Teg also works with influencers, educators and decision makers to build a society that values, supports and benefits women and men equally.




This Intellectual Output aims to define a European learning pathway on rural women entrepreneurship. This European training pathway aims to summarize all the qualifications and competences, and it will provide with information and orientation about how to TRAIN THE GAP training/learning activities of European countries and how adults could obtain these skills through modular training activities or through existing and available training.

  • The implementation of this IO will be carried out in 3 phases.
  • Training needs analysis.
  • Design of curricula.
  • Elaboration of final outcome.


This Intellectual output aims to develop TRAIN THE GAP course. The course will be based on the curricula, and it will be intended to develop some of the competences included in the curricula.

TRAIN THE GAP course will be based on blended training concept – Face to face training activities + on-line platform to support the training.

Activities to be carried out will be implemented in 3 phases:

  • Design of the course + platform
  • Testing with final users
  • Improvements and final version of the course

TRAIN THE GAP handbook is aimed to support the use TRAIN THE GAP COURSE and ON-LINE PLATFORM. The handbook also will introduce how the learning process occurs the course and how the trainers could take advantage of training tool. Besides the users’ guide, both learners and trainers will be able to find some recommendations about how to learn and how to train using the platform.


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GENDER GAP can be defined “as the differences between women and men, especially as reflected in social, political, intellectual, cultural, or economic attainments or attitudes” (dictionary.com) or as “the discrepancy in opportunities, status, attitudes, etc., between men and women” (Oxford dictionary). Despite a general trend towards more equality in society and the labour market, progress remains slow and significant gender gaps persist. Economic independence is a prerequisite for enabling both women and men to exercise control over their lives. Gender mainstreaming can make make a real difference in closing gender gaps by integrating the gender perspective into all policy areas, and by identifying, addressing and monitoring impacts on inequalities. However, after several strategic attempts to overcome the gender gap the different between men and women persist. Global Gender Gap Report (WEF, 2014) analyzed gender gap in 142 countries through the assessment of 4 variables related to the women participation and visibility in the society; 1) Economic participation and opportunity; 2) Educational Attainment; 3) Health and Survival; and 4) Political Empowerment. According to the results, disparity between European countries is too great. Five European countries (Iceland, Norway, Finland, Sweden and Denmark) lead the ranking. On the contrary,other five European countries are in bottom of the ranking (Slovakia, Greece, Hungary, Cyprus and Czech Republic). But, if we analyze more in detail each variable, gender gap in Economic participation and opportunity in some European countries is higher than in others, meaning that those countries theoretically don’t spend enough resources to promote the gender equality.

HHaving said that, European countries have achieved gender parity in education attainment, but women remain severely under-represented in key, growth-enhancing fields of education such as science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Labour markets also exhibit many “gender gaps”. Women are less likely to work for pay, and are more likely to have lower hourly earnings, or do more unpaid housework than men. The proportion of female entrepreneurs, at 33% (Labour Survey 2013) (30% in start-ups), is some way short of optimum and most women still do not consider entrepreneurship as a relevant career option. The implementation of European Directive on self-employed women should remove a major barrier to female entrepreneurship, but the differences still remain. Furthermore, the European Economic and Social Committee published ‘Strategy for equality between women and men 2010-2015’, proposes “Support the promotion of gender equality in the implementation of all aspects and flagship initiatives of the Europe 2020 strategy; and promote female entrepreneurship and self-employment.”

Fostering entrepreneurship is a key policy goal for governments of all countries which share the expectation that high rates of entrepreneurial activity will bring sustained job creation and boost the development of new products, processes, and organisational innovation. The report “ENHANCING WOMEN’S ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT THROUGH ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP” (OECD 2014) highlighted the importance of training women on entrepreneurship, to empower them and help overcome the unbalance of gender gap in Europe.